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英语定语从句和宾语从句

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英语定语从句和宾语从句

什么是英语的定语从句和宾语从句?

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    2018-11-11 01:48:17
  •   定语从句定语从句目录  
    (一) 限定性定语从句
    (二)非限定性定语从句
    (三)关系代词引导的定语从句
    (四)注意
    (五)关系副词引导的定语从句
    (六)判断关系代词与关系副词
    (七)介词 关系词
    (八)先行词和关系词二合一
    (九)as,which引导的非限定性定语从句
    (十)关系代词that 的用法
    (十一)难点分析
    (九)as,which引导的非限定性定语从句
    (十)关系代词that 的用法
    (十一)难点分析

    定语从句及相关术语
    1。
      定语从句:定语从句是由关系代词或关系副词引导的从句,其作用是作定语修饰主句的某个名词性成分,相当于形容词,所以又称为形容词性从句,一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词后面。
    2。关系词:引导定语从句的关联词称为关系词,关系词有关系代词和关系副词。
      关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose, as等;关系副词有where, when, why等。关系词常有3个作用:1,引导定语从句。2,代替先行词。3,在定语从句中担当一个成分。
    注:关系代词有主语。
      宾语之分。一般whom作为宾语。
    4。定语:定语用来限定、修饰名词或代词的,是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子,汉语中常用‘……的’表示。主要由形容词担任。此外,名词,代词,数词,分词,副词,不定式以及介词短语也可以来担任,也可以由一个句子来担任.单词作定语时通常放在它所修饰的词之前,作前置定语。
      短语和从句作定语时则放在所修饰的词之后,作后置定语。
    [编辑本段](一) 限定性定语从句
    一、关系代词
    1。 that既可代表事物也可代表人,which代表事物;它们在从句中作主语或宾语,that在从句中作宾语时常可省略关系词,which在从句中作宾语也可以省略。
      [eg:this is the book (which)you want。]而且,如果which在从句中作“不及物动词+介词”的介词的宾语,注意介词不要丢掉,而且介词总是放在关系代词which的前边,但有的则放在它原来的位置
    2。
       which作宾语时,根据先行词与定语从句之间的语义关系,先行词与which之间的介词不能丢
    3。 代表物时多用which,但在带有下列词的句子中用that而不用which,这些词包括当先行词是anything, everything, nothing , none等不定代词时,或者是由every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much等修饰时等,这时的that常被省略 还有先行词前有序数词或形容词最高级修饰时,或先行词就是序数词或最高级时。
      以及先行词中既有人又有物时。还有句中前面有which时,都只能用that
    4。 who和whom引导的从句用来修饰人,分别作从句中的主语和宾语,whom作宾语时,要注意它可以作动词的宾语也可以作介词的宾语
    二、关系副词
    关系副词=介词 关系代词
    why=for which
    where=in which
    when=during which
    whose=of which
    3。
       whose是关系代词,修饰名词作定语,相当于所修饰成分的前置所有格。它引导的从句可以修饰人和物, 当它引导的从句修饰物体时, 可以与 of which 调换,表达的意思一样。
    4。 当从句的逻辑主语是some, any, no, somebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, everything或nothing时,常用there is来引导
    There is somebody here who wants to speak to you。
       这里有人要和你说话。
    [编辑本段](二)非限定性定语从句
    非限定性定语从句的作用是对所修饰的成分作进一步说明,通常是引导词和先行词之间用逗号隔开,将从句拿掉后其他部分仍可成立
    1。
       which引导的非限定性定语从句来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分
    2。当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:
    Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year。
       查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。
    My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden。 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。
    This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching。
       这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。
    3。非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进 Freddie, as might be expected, was attending the conference。
    Which作主语时,谓语动词不限,主语被动皆可,只是谓语动词为被动语态时助动词be省略。
      
    2。 as和which都可以在特殊定语从句中宾语。
    3。 as和 which在特殊定语从句中作补语。如:
    We thought him a gentleman, as/which he could never be。
      
    “as”特殊定语从句中可以主谓倒装,“which”从句中则不能主谓倒装。
    如果先行成分不是主语补语或宾语补语,关系代词用which而不用as。如:
    He talked like a native, which/as he hardly was。
      
    4。 which在特殊从定语句中作定语。
    which可以在特殊定语从句中作定语,修饰fact, matter, thing 等名词。这些名词代表先行成分表达的意义,有时将其略去句义仍然完整。
      as不能作定语。如:
    I was told to go not by train but bus, which advice I followed。
    [编辑本段](十)关系代词that 的用法
    (1)不用that的情况
    (a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。
      
    (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, Is very famous here。
    (b) 介词后不能用。
    We depend on the land from which we get our food。
      
    We depend on the land that/which we get our food from。
    (2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况
    (a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。
      
    (b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。
    (c) 先行词有the only, the very,the same,the last,just修饰时,只用that。
      
    (d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。。
    (e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。
    (f) 先行词指物,在主句中作表语时.
    (g) 为了避免重复.
    (h)先行词是the way时
    举例:
    Is this the book that you borrowed in the library?
    这是你在图书馆借的那本书吗?
    Who that break the window should be punished.
    谁打碎了窗户都要受到惩罚.
    All that is needed is a supply of oil。
      
    所需的只是供油问题。
    Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police。
    那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。
      
    [编辑本段](十一)难点分析
    (一)限制性定语从句只能用that的几种情况
    1.当先行词是anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some等代词时,或者是由every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much,each等修饰时
    (1) Have you taken down everything that Mr。
       Li has said?
    (2) There seems to be nothing that seems impossible for him in the world。
    (3) All that can be done has been done。
      
    (4) There is little that I can do for you。
    注意1:部分时候that可以省略,如部分例句将that用括号括住。
    注意2:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用who
    (4) Any man that/。
      who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing。
    2。 当先行词被序数词修饰
    (1) The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben。
      
    3。 当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时
    (1) This is the best film that I have seen。
    4。 当形容词被the very, the only,the same,the last 修饰时
    (1) This is the very good dictionary that I want to buy,
    (2) After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owned。
      
    当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用who
    (3) Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting?
    5。
       当先行词前面有who, which等疑问代词时
    (1) Who is the man that is standing there?
    (2) Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?
    6。
       当先行词既有人,也有动物或者物体时
    (1) Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned?
    (二)关系代词as和which引导的定语从句as和which引导非限制性定语从句,有相同之处也有不同之处。
      具体情况是:
    1.As和which都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,代表前面整个句子。
    (1) He married her, as/which was natural。
    (2) He was honest, as/which we can see。
      
    2。 as 引导非限制性定语从句,可放在主句之前,或者主句之后,甚至可以切割一个主句;which引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。另外,as有“正如……,正像……”的意思
    (1) As is known to all, China is a developing country。
      
    (2) He is from the south, as we can see from his accent。
    (3) John, as you know, is a famous writer。
      
    (4) He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’t believe。
    注意:当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时,常用which
    (5) Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry。
      
    3。 当先行词受such, the same修饰时,常用as
    (1) I have never heard such a story as he tells。
    (2) He is not such a fool as he looks。
      
    (3) This is the same book as I lost last week。
    注意:当先行词由the same修饰时,偶尔也用that引导定语从句,但是和由as所引导的定语从句意思不同
    (4) She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding。
      
    她穿着她在MARY婚礼上穿过的一条裙子。
    (5) She wore the same dress as her young sister wore。 她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的裙子。
    (三)以the way为先行词的定语从句通常由in which, that引导,而且通常可以省略。
      
    (1) The way in which/ that/。/ he answered the question was surprising。
    (四) but有时也可以做关系词引导定语从句
    (1) There are very few but understand his idea。
      
    ( but= who don’t )
    (五) 区分定语从句和同位语从句
    1.定语从句修饰先行词,它和先行词是修饰关系;
    同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容,是补充说明的关系
    (1) The plane that has just taken off is for London。
       定语从句
    (2) The fact that he has been dead is clear。 同位语从句
    2.定语从句由关系代词或者关系副词引导,关系词在句中充当成分,有时可以省略;
    同位语从句主要由that引导,在句中一般不做成分;
    句子也可以由when, where, how, why, whether, what等词引导,充当成分
    (1) The news he told me is true。
      
    (2) The news that he has just died is true。
    (3) The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money。
       定语
    (4) The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve。
    3。 同位语从句和先行词一般可以用be动词发展成一个完整的句子,而定语从句不可以
    (1) The idea that we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful。
       同位语
    (2) The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice。
    (3) The fact that the earth moves around the earth is known to all。
      
    (4) The fact is that the earth moves around the earth。
    18。 定语从句
    定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。
      定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
    关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。
    关系副词有: when, where, why等。
      
    18。1 关系代词引导的定语从句
    关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。
      
    1)who, whom, that
    这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:
    Is he the man who/that wants to see you?
    他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)
    He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday。
      
    他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)
    2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如:
    They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down。
       那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。
    Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green。 请递给我那本绿皮的书。
    3)which, that
    它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:
    A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside。
       农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)
    The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped。 你拿的包快散了。
      (which / that在句中作宾语)
    〔定语从句〕介词 关系词
    1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。
    2)that前不能有介词。
    3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词 关系词"结构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。
      例如:
    This is the house in which I lived two years ago。 这是我两年前住过的房子。
    This is the house where I lived two years ago。
      
    Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗?
    Do you remember the day when you joined our club?









    宾语从句目录
    宾语从句(版本一)
    宾语从句(版本二)
    宾语从句(版本三)
    宾语从句(版本四)


    [编辑本段]宾语从句(版本一)
    在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句。
      宾语从句分为三类:动词的宾语从句,介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句。
    时态:1·主句用一般现在时,从句可用任意时态。
    2·主句用过去时,从句用过去某个时态。
    3·主句用过去时,从句是真理时,只用一般现在时。
      
    1。宾语从句的连接词
    从属连词
    连接宾语从句的从属连词主要有that,if,whether。
    that引导表示陈述句的宾语从句,而if和whether引导表示“是否”的宾语从句。
      
    He told me that he would go to the college the next year
    他告诉我他下一年上大学。
    I don’t know if there will be a bus any more。
      
    我不知道是否还会有公交车。
    Nobody knew whether he could pass the exam。
    没人知道他是否会通过考试。
    连接代词
    连接代词主要有who, whom ,whose ,what ,whoever ,whomever ,whosever, whatever, whichever等。
      
    连接代词一般指疑问,但what, whatever除了指疑问外,也可以指陈述。
    Do you know who has won Red Alert game?
    你知道谁赢了这一局红警游戏吗?
    I don’t know whom you should depend on。
      
    我不知道你该依靠谁。
    The book will show you what the best CEOs know。
    这本书会告诉你最好的执行总裁该了解些什么。
    Have you determined whichever you should buy,a Motorola or Nokia cell phone?
    你决定好是买诺基亚还是摩托罗拉的电话了吗?
    连接副词
    连接副词主要有when,where,why,how,whenever,wherever,however等。
      
    He didn’t tell me when we should meet again。
    他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再见面。
    Could you please tell me how you read the new panel?
    你能告诉我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗?
    None of us knows where these new parts can be bought。
      
    没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到。
    2。动词的宾语从句
    大多数动词都可以带宾语从句
    We all expect that they will win , for members of their team are stronger。
      
    我们都预料他们会赢,因为他们的队员更强壮。
    He told us that they would help us though the whole work。
    他告诉我们在整个工作中,他都会帮忙的。
      
    部分“动词 副词”结构也可以带宾语从句
    I have found out that all the tickets for the concert have been sold out。
      
    我发现这场音乐会的所有票都卖光了。
    Can you work out how much we will spend during the trip?
    你能计算出这次旅行我们将花费多少钱吗?
    动词短语也可以带宾语从句
    常见的这些词有:
    make sure确保 make up one’s mind下决心 keep in mind牢记
    Make sure that there are no mistakes in your papers before you turn them in。
      
    在上交试卷前确保没有任何错误。
    可运用形式宾语it代替的宾语从句
    ①动词find,feel,consider,make,believe等后面有宾语补足语的时候,则需要用it做形式宾语而将that宾语从句后置。
      
    I think it necessary that we take plenty of hot water every day 。
    我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的。
    I feel it a pity that I haven’t been to the get-together。
      
    我没去聚会,感觉非常遗憾。
    I have made it a rule that I keep diaries。
    我每天写日记成了习惯。
    We all find it important that we (should) make a quick decision about this mater。
      
    我们都认为对这件事马上做出决定很重要。
    ②有些动词带宾语从句时寻要在宾语与从句前加it
    这类动词主要有:hate, take , owe, have, see to。
      
    I hate it when they with their mouths full of food。
    我讨厌他们满嘴食物时说话。
    He will have it that our plan is really practical。
      
    他会认为我们的计划确实可行。
    We take it that you will agree with us。
    我们认为你会同意我们的。
    When you start the engine, you must see to it that car is in neutral。
      
    开启发动机时, 一定要使汽车的离合器处于空挡位置。
    ③若宾语从句是wh-类,则不可用it代替
    We all consider what you said to be unbelievable。
      
    我们都认为你所说的是不可信的。
    We discovered what we had learned to be valuable。
    我们发现我们所学到的东西都是有用的。
      
    3。介词的宾语从句
    用wh-类的介词宾语从句
    We are talking about whether we admit students into our club。
      
    我们正在讨论是否让学生加入我们的俱乐部。
    The new book is about how Shenzhou 6 manned spaceship was sent up into space。
      
    这本新书是关于神州6号载人航天飞船是如何升如太空的。
    用that,if引导的介词宾语从句
    有时候except,but,besides三个介词后可见到that引导的宾语从句
    I know nothing about my new neighbor except that he used to work with a company。
      
    对于我的新邻居我只知道他曾在一家公司上班,其他一无所知。
    4。形容词的宾语从句
    常用来引导宾语从句的形容词有: sure,certain,glad,please,happy,sorry,afraid,satisfied,surprised
    I am sure I will pass the exam。
      
    我确信我会通过考试。
    I am sorry that I have troubled you so long。
    很抱歉我这么长时间在打扰你。
    He is glad that Li Ming went to see him when he was ill。
      
    他很高兴在他生病的时候李明能去看望他。
    5。if,whether在宾语从句中的区别
    ①if和whether在作“是否”解时,引导宾语从句常放在动词know,ask,care,wonder,find out等之后,介词后一般不用if
    ②少数动词,如:leave,put,discuss,doubt后的宾语从句常用whether。
      
    ③whether后可以加or not,但是if不可以。
    ④在不定式前只能用whether。
    如: I can’t decide whether to stay。 我不能决定是否留下。
      
    ⑤避免歧异时,我们常用whether而不用if。
    6。哪些宾语从句不可以省略引导词that
    当that作learn,suggest,explain,agree,wonder,prove,mean,state,feel,hold等动词的宾语时;
    当宾语从句较长时;
    当主语状语置于主句尾,宾语从句之前时;
    当主语谓语动词(包括非谓语动词)与宾语从句之间有插入语时;
    当一个动词带有两个或两个以上宾语从句时,此时第一个that可以省略,第二个that不可以省略;
    当宾语从句中的主语是this,that或this,that做主语的定语时;
    当宾语从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时;
    当宾语从句的主语是非谓语动词或主语从句时;
    当主语中的谓语动词是固定词组时;
    当宾语从句有it做其先行词时;
    在直接引语中,转述分句把宾语从句隔开时。
      
    7。宾语从句的否定转移
    主句的谓语动词是think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,espect,fancy,guess等,并且主句的主语是第一人称而且为一般现在时,从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来,其反义疑问句一般与宾语从句一致。
      
    I don’t think he will come to my party。而不能说成I think he won’t come to my party。
    我认为他不会来我的舞会。
    I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim,is he?
    我认为那个人不是Jim所杀的,是不是?
    如果宾语从句中有某个含有否定意义的形容词或副词,其反义疑问句要用肯定形式。
      
    We find that he never listens to the teacher carefully,does he?
    我们发现他从来不仔细听老师讲课,是不是?
    8。
      宾语从句的时态和语序
    当主句为现在时或将来时的时候,宾语从句的时态一般不受主句的时态所影响。
    当主句为过去时的时候
    ①从句用一般过去时或过去进行时表示与主句谓语动词动作同时发生
    I only knew he was studying in a western country,but I didn’t know what country he was in。
      
    我只知道他当时在西方的一个国家读书,可不知道是哪个国家。
    He asked me if I was reading the story The Old Man and the Sea when he was in。
      
    他问我他进来的时候我是否正在读>。
    ②从句过去完成时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之前
    He told me that he had told Mary about the meeting already。
      
    他告诉我他已经把有关会议的事情告诉的了Mary。
    ③从句谓语用过去将来时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之后
    The reporter asked if the government would take necessary measures to put down the to-do。
      
    记者问政府是否会采取必要的措施镇压骚乱。
    如果从句是一个客观真理,那么从句的时态不根据主句的时态而变化
    The teacher said that the moon goes around the earth yesterday。
      
    老师昨天说月亮绕着地球转。
      
    当宾语从句的引导词是who,which,what,when,where,how,why等表疑问时,不能按正常语序安排,经常将这类引导词置于句首
    Who do you think the public might choose as their favorite singer this year?
    你认为今年公众会选谁为他们最喜欢的歌手。

    短暂的幸福_...

    2018-11-11 01:48:17

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